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Bad

Official Full Name
BCL2-associated agonist of cell death
Background
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Synonyms
BAD; BCL2-associated agonist of cell death; BBC2; BCL2L8; bcl2 antagonist of cell death; bcl2-L-8; BCL2-binding protein; bcl-2-like protein 8; BCL2-binding component 6; bcl-2-binding component 6; BCL-X/BCL-2 binding protein; BCL2-antagonist of cell death protein; bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter

The Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) protein is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 gene family which is involved in initiating apoptosis. Unlike most other members of the Bcl-2 family, BAD does not have a C-terminal transmembrane domain, which is a target of outer mitochondrial membrane and nuclear envelope. Upon activation, it forms a heterodimer with the anti-apoptotic proteins and prevents apoptosis.

TCTN1 Silencing Inhibits Proliferation of Thyroid Cancer by Increasing the Expression of BAD

The tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) is a member of the tectonic family that regulates the hedgehog signaling pathway. There is a significant early and late apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells after TCTN1 knockdown, further demonstrating that TCTN1 plays a positive role in thyroid cancer cell growth and proliferation. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 plays a pivotal role in regulating cell apoptosis under many adverse conditions, while pro-apoptotic BAD is essential for inducing apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that silencing TCTN1 results in increasing BAD expression and reduced expression of Bcl-2. Collectively, inhibition of thyroid cancer cell proliferation induced by TCTN1 knockdown may be closely associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells.

BAD’s Mutation Contributes to GCK-MODY

Monogenic diabetes is a heterogeneous group of single-gene diabetes that result in β-cell dysfunction. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is one of the major forms of monogenic diabetes recognized in the pediatric population. The GCK-MODY subtype, responsible for the majority of MODY cases in the pediatric population, is associated with the presence of heterozygous inactivating mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene. The GCK gene encodes an enzyme that plays a key role in regulating insulin secretion and hepatic glucose metabolism in beta cells. GCK gene expression is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. By analysis the BAD gene sequence in patients with clinical suspicion of GCK-MODY but who are known to be negative for GCK gene mutations. As a result, an example in which a base pair substitution results in a non-synonymous replacement of an amino acid is found. Therefore, changes in the amino acid sequence of the BAD gene that regulates the activity of the GCK enzyme, may have an impact on the glucose metabolism in this patient.

Ursolic Acid Down-regulates the AKT/BAD Signaling Pathway

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a type of cancer with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. In CAR cells treated with ursolic acid, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed by flow cytometry. It was found that dephosphorylated BAD promoted apoptosis and inactivated other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w. The BAD protein is phosphorylated at serine 99 and serine 134 sites (serine 136 site in mice) by AKT, then the BAD protein dissociates from the heterodimer of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and binds to a protein in the cytoplasm with an inactive form. Therefore, the free Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL can inhibit apoptosis. The apoptosis-associated signaling shows that ursolic acid decreases the phosphorylation of AKT (Ser473) and BAD (Ser136) and increases the expression of BAD and Bax protein in oral cancer cells.

BAD Fig 1. An integrated model of the apoptosis-related signaling pathway induced by ursolic acid in human cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells (Chen et al. Oncology Reports.2018).

References:

  1. Antosik, K, Gnyś, P, Jarosz-Chobot, P, Myśliwiec, M, Szadkowska, A, Małecki, M, Borowiec, M. An analysis of the sequence of the BAD gene among patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017.
  2. Xu P, Xia X, Yang Z, Tian Y, Di J, Guo M. Silencing of TCTN1 inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human thyroid cancer. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2017.
  3. Chen, C., Yang, J., Chen, W., Lu, C., Chiang, J., Chiu, H,Way, T. Ursolic acid elicits intrinsic apoptotic machinery by downregulating the phosphorylation of AKT/BAD signaling in human cisplatin resistant oral cancer CAR cells. Oncology Reports. 2018.
  4. Hamaï, A., Richon, C., Meslin, F., Faure, F., Kauffmann, A., Lecluse, Y., Mehrpour, M. Imatinib enhances human melanoma cell susceptibility to TRAIL-induced cell death: relationship to Bcl-2 family and caspase activation. Oncogene. 2006.

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