A typical sgRNA contains 98 nucleotides (including a 20-nt target sequence) and functions as a guide in the Cas9/sgRNA nuclease complex. To improve Cas9 expression in plants, most modified Cas9 genes for genome editing have also been optimized with usage bias codons.
In CRISPR/Cas9 system, there are two critical parts: sgRNA sequence and Cas9 sequence. These two sequence could be cloned into separated plasmids or combined into one plasmids.
Considering the limited utility of protoplast system, it’s also available to transfect preassembled complexes of purified Cas9 protein and synthesized sgRNA.
The genotype of the resultant mutants must be determined before carrying out further studies.
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