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Histones, the building blocks of mammalian chromatin, are small basic proteins that can be covalently modified by acetylation, methylation and ubiquitination at their flexible N- or C-terminal tails as well as globular domains. Histone proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications (PTMs), many of which (such as acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation) occur at lysines or citrullination at arginine. Modifications to these proteins affect different processes in the cell such as the DNA damage, DNA repair, activation/inactivation of transcription, and chromosome packaging. Defects in histone PTM metabolism have been linked to misregulated gene expression in various in vitro models and, in some cases, also correlate with human disease, as has been demonstrated for immunodeficiency disorders and various human cancers. Therefore, how histone markers are regulated and influence the association of PTM-specific binding proteins are an area of significant investigation.
Figure 1. DNA methylation and histone modification regulate the gene expression.
Creative Biogene offers a comprehensive range of histone modifications assay services for the quantification of methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and SUMOylation of histones at all sites. The most comprehensive selection of histone modification research services covers every step of your experimental workflow, from upstream to downstream.
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in controlling histone H3 acetylation. Detecting if histone is acetylated at its lysine residue would provide useful information for further characterizing the acetylation patterns or sites, thereby resulting in a better understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene activation, and development of HAT or HDAC-targeted drugs. Our histone acetylation & deacetylation profiling services include histone acetylation quantification assays, HAT assays and HDAC assays.
Protein methylation is the transfer of one to three methyl groups to lysine or arginine residues. Histone methylation is associated with a variety of diseases, including poor survival in cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, mental retardation, ageing and others. Measurement of histone methyltransferase activity and quantification of histone methylation patterns have become pivotal in studying epigenetic regulation of genes and inhibitor discovery. Our histone methylation profiling services include histone methylation quantification assays, histone methyltransferase assays and histone demethylase assays.
The addition of a phosphoryl group (PO4) on serine, tyrosine, threonine and histidine residues is a reaction termed phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine or threonine conserved through eukaryotes, and an increase in phosphorylation has been proven to correlate with gene activation and cell growth. Our histone phosphorylation profiling can provide useful information in better understanding the pathological processes of some diseases, and for protein kinase-targeted drug development.
Ubiquitination is an enzymatic process which involves the bonding of an ubiquitin protein to a substrate protein. Recent advances have defined critical roles of histone ubiquitination in transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The dominant forms of ubiquitinated histones are monoubiquitinated H2A (H2Aub) and H2B (H2Bub). Our histone ubiquitination profiling services can achieve thioester formation and high sensitivity detection of ubiquitin conjugates.
SUMOylation is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, protein stability, response to stress, and progression through the cell cycle. Our services can detect in vivo protein sumoylation (SUMO conjugation) to provide useful information for understanding SUMO modification that emerges as an important control mechanism regulating the activity of a number of nuclear proteins, as well for protein sumoylation-targeted drug development.
Whether you are quantifying histone modifications, measuring or inhibiting the activity of “writers” (epigenetic modifications are deposited by specific enzymes) and “erasers” (epigenetic marks are removed by various enzymes), we can help you make your mark in epigenetic research. Our services can help you to accelerate the development of new therapeutic agents and improvement in disease treatment, especially cancer therapy. If you have any specific needs, please feel free to contact us.