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Exosomes are membrane-wrapped extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the size range of 30 to 150 nanometres (nm) in diameter. Exosomes can be found in multiple biological fluids including blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid as well as in supernatant of in vitro cultured cells. They are constitutively generated from late endosomes by formation of multivesicular body (MVB), further intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) within large MVBs, and then most ILVs are released into the extracellular space as exosomes.
Exosomes can contain many constituents of the cells that secrete them, including DNA, RNA, metabolites, lipids, cytosolic and cell-surface proteins. Tetraspanins such as CD9, CD63 and CD81 are the most common exosome marker proteins. Exosomes can be taken up by the target cells they encounter and reprogram the recipient cells through the bioactive compounds they carried.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of exosome formation
As a mode of cell-to-cell communication, exosomes may play a major role in many cellular processes including immune response, signal transduction and antigen presentation etc. Therefore, there is a growing interest in applications of exosomes as potential biomarkers as well as therapeutic agents.
Creative Biogene provides recombinant lentivirus particles that contain common exosome biomarkers with multiple reporter genes. These lentiviruses are efficient research tools in the study of exosome release, uptake and biodistribution mechanisms.
Browse All Exosome Marker Lentiviral Particles