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PARP1 (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1) is a well-known enzyme as ADP-ribosylation, which is essential for initiating various forms of DNA repair (Table 1). PARP1 becomes activated upon binding to DNA single-strand and double- Strand breaks (ssDB and dsDB respectively). This interaction is important for DNA repair because auto-ribosylation is required for assembly and activation of multiprotein complexes for this process. In addition to DNA repair, the importance of PARP1 as a transcriptional regulator has also been well documented. As an enzyme, PARP1 acts on the chromatin remodeling complex to control DNA-free RNA polymerase. PARP1 also regulates gene expression by acting as a transcription factor binding to the octamer motif of the promoter element. Therefore, PARP1 is involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation by affecting DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Moreover, PARP1 gene may be a mutation site in Fanconi anemia and may be involved in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes. PARP1 can also counteract the production of reactive oxygen species, which can extend life by inhibiting oxidative damage to DNA and proteins.
Table 1: Involvement of PARP1 and PAR in DNA repair pathways (Hui Ling Ko. 2012)
|DNA Repair Mechanism||PARP1 Function|
|Base excision repair (BER)||Binds AP site|
|Auto-modified PARP1 recruits BER complex|
|Nucleotide excision repair (NER)||ADP-ribosylates XPA|
|Mismatch repair (MMR)||ADP-ribosylates MSH6|
|Single-strand break repair (SSBR)||Auto-modified PARP1 recruits BER complex|
|Double-strand break repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)||Ku enhances PARP1 ADP-ribosylation activity|
|ADP-ribosylates and activates DNA-PKcs|
|Double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (HR)||Auto-modified PARP1 recruits Mre11|
|PAR activates ATM signaling|
In the treatment of diseases, due to the characteristics of PARP1 in various DNA repair pathways and maintains the characteristics of genomic stability, it is expected to use small molecules inhibiting the enzyme activity to prevent unwanted DNA repair in the treatment of various cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Understanding the role of PARP1 in maintaining genomic integrity is important not only for the design of novel chemotherapeutic agents but also for understanding the mechanisms of chemical resistance in cancer cells.
PARP1 Gene Editing Service
CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB is one of the leading gene editing companies and committed to offering comprehensive CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing services and products to solve the challenging problems of CRISPR technology applications and support your genetic research. With deep gene editing knowledge and extensive experience in experimental operation and data processing, we help you effectively control target genes knockout/knockin/point mutation in cells or animals via CRISPR/Cas9 technology.
Based on advanced national-level labs, a team of professional scientists, CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB has successfully implemented PARP1 CRISPR/Cas9 gene edit in both easy-to-transfect cell lines and hard-to-transfect cells. Tell us your needs, we will offer you professional custom PARP1 gene editing services from strategy design to final stable cells. Our PARP1 gene editing cell line generation services include:
Typically, we develop CRISPR-mediated gene editing cell lines including HEK239T, Hela, HepG2, U87, but we can use other cell lines according to your requirements.
Host cell line: Ba/F3, CHO, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-231NIH3T3, T47D, Neuro2a, MCF7, RKO, K562, RAW264.7, etc.
CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB also has extensive experience in incorporating CRISPR-Cas9 technology into animal models, which have been fully recognized by our clients. According to your projects’ needs, we provide a one-stop-shop PARP1 CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing animal services and guarantee at least 2 founders or 3 F1 animals y with shorter turnaround time and lower price. Our PARP1 gene editing animal model generation services include:
Alternative species: mouse, rat, rabbit, zebrafish, C. elegans, etc.
CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB is devoted to providing the best gene editing services to accelerate the achievement of your research goals. Our one-stop service range from strategy design to final stable cell lines or F1 animals. In addition, we provide you custom service to meet your special requirements with excellent quality management and quality assurance capacity. There is no doubt that CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB will be your best partner to support your research. If you have any project need CRISPR system, don’t hesitate to contact us.
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