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CAIII (carbonic anhydrase III), a cytosolic enzyme, is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family. This is a class of metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and are differentially expressed in a variety of cell types. The CAIII gene spans 10.3 kb and contains seven exons and six introns. Its expression is strictly tissue-specific, expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, and much lower in heart and smooth muscle.
It turns out that the physiological role of CA III is very complex, participating in the protection of proteins and cellular systems from irreversible oxidation processes. CA III overexpression leads to an increase in the acidity of the extracellular and intracellular environment. Decreased pH may activate the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway, which in turn plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration, and survival. CA III has been linked to other CAs (such as CA II) and has been linked to autoimmune diseases. CA III dysfunction or antibody response to CA III enzymes may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases. Despite many studies, the main functions of CA III have not been identified.
CA III and Diseases
Due to its low catalytic activity, CA III has long been a neglected isoenzyme in the α-CA enzyme family. However, recent studies have shown that CA III is involved in important physiological processes or phenomena, such as oxidative stress, obesity, mitochondrial ATP synthesis, autoimmunity, and carcinogenesis. Therefore, the activation or inhibition of this enzyme by various compounds may provide new opportunities for the treatment of certain diseases related to CA III expression or functional deficiency.
Figure 1: Schematic representation of reversible and irreversible oxidation of CA III reactive cysteines (Daria M. Monti. 2017).
CAIII Gene Editing Service
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