BRAF Gene Editing

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BRAF Gene Editing    

BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, or proto-oncogene B-Raf) is one of the human RAF genes (the other two are ARAF and CRAF), encoding the B-Raf protein. B-Raf is activated by binding to Ras-GTP and participates in RAS/MAPK signal transduction in cells, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. B-Raf can catalyze the phosphorylation of serine and threonine on target proteins and convert ATP to ADP.

  • Structure of B-Raf and Its Activity Regulation

The B-Raf protein contains three conserved domains, Ras-GTP binding self-regulatory domain (CR1), a serine-rich region (CR2, that can serve as a hinge on the molecule), and a catalytic protein kinase domain (CR3). CR3 phosphorylates specific sequences on protein targets. Studies have shown that CR1 can inhibit the activity of the kinase domain CR3 to regulate the overall signaling activity of the molecule. The binding of Ras-GTP to 155-227 amino acid residues in CR1 can activate B-Raf.

In addition, CR3 is also inhibited when certain serine and tyrosine residues in the CR2 hinge region are untranslated and phosphorylated. By phosphorylation of the activation loop, the CR3 kinase domain is converted into its active form.

  • B-Raf and Diseases

Mutations in this gene (most commonly the V600E mutation) are the most common carcinogenic mutations in melanoma and have also been identified in a variety of other cancers, including
➢ Melanoma
➢ Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
➢ Colorectal cancer
➢ Thyroid cancer
➢ Non-small cell lung cancer
➢ hairy cell leukemia
➢ Lung adenocarcinoma

Mutations in this gene have also been linked to cardiac facial skin, noonan, and costello syndrome, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes.

Oncogenic BRAF signaling pathwayFigure 1: Oncogenic BRAF signaling pathway (Paolo A Ascierto. 2012). RTK: receptor tyrosine kinase.

  • Target B-Raf in Cancer Therapy

As a key element of MAPK signaling, B-Raf kinase is considered a convincing target in oncology. B-Raf inhibitors have shown clinical efficacy in melanomas containing B-Raf V600E. Two drugs, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced melanoma. Vemurafenib is the first fragment-based drug discovery method.

BRAF Gene Editing Service

CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB has extensive experience in incorporating CRISPR/Cas9 technology into >200 different cell lines, including easy-to-transfect cell lines and hard-to-transfect cells, and different animals. To support your research, we provide you with end-to-end BRAF gene editing service from strategy design to final models.

  • Our BRAF Gene Editing Services Include

Mutation via CRISPR Gene Editing

We are able to perform specific DNA deletions, mutations or substitutions to study gene function with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology with high precision. Available services:
➢ Knockout
➢ Point Mutation
➢ Conditional knockout/knock-in
➢ Floxed allele insertion

Mark by CRISPR Gene Editing

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB is able to tag your genes at the endogenous locus and visualize them with fluorescent proteins or immune-tags for biochemical studies. Available services:
➢ Fluorescent tag
➢ Immuno-tag
➢ Custom tags and combinations are also available

  • Project Workflow

➢ Strategy design
➢ gRNA design and synthesis, donor DNA design and synthesis (if needed)
➢ CRISPR/Cas9 vector construction
➢ Transfection into the cell lines or microinjection into embryo single cell
➢ Validate by PCR and sequencing
➢ Delivery

  • Models We Offered
Blood Lineage CellsRAW264.7, HMC1.2, K562, U937, etc.
Cancer Cell LinesHEK293, HEK293T, Hela, MCF7, Neuro2a, HepG2, U87, etc.
Stem CellsiPSC
Other Cell LinesNIH3T3, MCF10, HEME, SW10, etc.
Animal models we offeredmouse, rat, rabbit, zebrafish, C. elegans, etc.

Related Products at CRISPR/Cas9 PlatformCB

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME INQUIRY
CLKO-1589BRAF KO Cell Lysate-HeLaInquiry
CSC-RT1742Human BRAF Knockout Cell Line-HeLaInquiry

References

  1. Davies H. et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature. 2002; 417 (6892):949–54.
  2. Lee-Jen Luu and Timothy J. Price. BRAF Mutation and Its Importance in Colorectal Cancer.
  3. Paolo A Ascierto. et al. The role of BRAF V600 mutation in melanoma. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2012; 10:85.
  4. Peng-Fei Wang. et al. A patent review of BRAF inhibitors: 2013-2018. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2019; 29(8): 595-603.
  5. Sithanandam G. et al. Complete coding sequence of a human B-raf cDNA and detection of B-raf protein kinase with isozyme specific antibodies. Oncogene. 1990; 5 (12):1775–80.
  6. Sithanandam G. et al. B-raf and a B-raf pseudogene are located on 7q in man. Oncogene. 1992; 7 (4): 795–9.
  7. Tiangui Huang. et al. B-Raf and the inhibitors: from bench to bedside. Journal of Hematology & Oncology. 2013; 6:30.
  8. Wang, P.-F. et al. A patent review of BRAF inhibitors: 2013-2018. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2019.
  9. FDA Approves Zelboraf (Vemurafenib) and Companion Diagnostic for BRAF Mutation-Positive Metastatic Melanoma, a Deadly Form of Skin Cancer. (Press release). Genentech. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
For research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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