Nav1.7 is a voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit. It is expressed in all types of DRG neurons, sympathetic neurons, Schwann cells and neuroendocrine cells. This channel is involved in action potential initiation and transmission in peripheral neurons and is a potential target for local anaesthetic agents. Specific hereditary mutations in the gene encoding Nav1.7, SCN9A, result in the painful neuropathies, erythermalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, that can be ascribed to altered firing of pain sensing neurons. Changes in the expression levels of the channel correlates with increases in neuronal excitability in acute and chronic pain syndromes. Hence due to their relatively discrete location and fundamental role in mediating certain types of pain they may be promising targets for pharmacological intervention.