This gene encodes a member of the mutS family of proteins that are involved in DNA mismatch repair and meiotic recombination. This protein is similar to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein that participates in segregation fidelity and crossing-over events during meiosis. This protein plays a role in promoting ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis. This protein forms hetero-oligomers with another member of this family, mutS homolog 4. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to various human diseases, including IgA deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, and premature ovarian failure. Alternative splicing results multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream chromosome 6 open reading frame 26 (C6orf26) gene.