Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a protein identified as belonging to both the 28S and the 39S subunits. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 4q, 6p, 6q, 7p, and 15q.
MRPL42; mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42; 39S ribosomal protein L42, mitochondrial; HSPC204; MRP L31; MRPL31; MRPS32; PTD007; RPML31; mitochondrial; 28S ribosomal protein S32; 39S ribosomal protein L31; 39S ribosomal protein L42; L31mt; L42mt; Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S32; MRP L42; MRP S32; MRP-L31; MRP-L42; MRP-S32; RM42_HUMAN; S32mt; 28S ribosomal protein S32, mitochondrial; 39S ribosomal protein L31, mitochondrial