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idi1

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Official Full Name
isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase 1
Background
IDI1 encodes a peroxisomally-localized enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its highly electrophilic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), which are the substrates for the successive reaction that results in the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate and, ultimately, cholesterol.It has been shown in peroxisomal deficiency diseases such as Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy that there is reduction in IPP isomerase activity.
Synonyms
IDI1; isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase 1; isopentenyl diphosphate delta isomerase; isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase 1; IPP isomerase; IDI1_HUMAN; IPP isomerase 1; IPPI1; Isopentenyl diphosphate Delta isomerase 1; isopentenyl diphosphate dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase 1; Isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase 1; OTTHUMP00000018949; OTTHUMP00000018951; IPP1; zgc:114138

Overview

IDI1, through its highly electrophilic isomers, encodes a peroxide localization enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of isoprene (IPP) and dimethyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Dimethyl diphosphate (DMAPP) is a substrate for the continuous reaction and is eventually used to synthesize cholesterol. Peroxidase defects such as zierweg syndrome and neonatal adrenal leukodystrophy, IPP isomerase activity is decreased.

Figure 1. The mechanism for the isomerization between IDI and DMAPP.

Evolutionary analysis:

Isoprene isomerase (IDI) activates isoprene (IPP) polymerization by converting isoprene (IPP) into its highly nucleophilic dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In plants, the central reaction of isoprene biosynthesis is catalyzed by highly conserved isoenzymes with different expression patterns and subcellular localization. Unlike plants, only IDI1 is highly conserved in mammals and is most likely responsible for housekeeping isomerase activity. The second isomer, IDI2, is more diffuse. We demonstrate that the active center changes during the initial repeat IDI2 after a short period of significant random change. Since then, IDI2 has been under strict purification options for at least 70 million years. The molecular model indicated that the modified IDI2 could still catalyze IPP isomerization to DMAPP. In humans, IDI2 is expressed only at high levels in skeletal muscles, where it may be involved in the specific production of isoprene for post-translational modifications of proteins. IDI2, revealed by sequence conservative patterns, has significant positive fitness effects, and its specific expression patterns emphasize the importance of IDI gene replication in mammals.

Diseases associated:

While there have been no evidence directly implicating IDI1 mutations in human disease, genomic analysis has identified a copy-number gain near two IDI isomerase genes in a substantial proportion of patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting that the isomerase may play a role in this disease. IDI is a cytoplasmic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoprene including cholesterol. Scientists studied immunohistochemical localization of Eddie 1 and Eddie 2 in patients with PLB and multiple system atrophy (MSA). In the normal control group, the neuronal cytoplasm was weakly immunostained with anti-IDI1 and anti-IDI2 antibodies throughout the nervous system. In LB disease, brain-derived LBs had a strong positive response to IDI1 and IDI2, and cortex LBs had no or little immunological markers. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the phosphorylation of IDI1 or IDI2 of co-localization. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions in MSA were not stained. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol metabolites increase the number of pounds of disease, and in the cerebral cortex of patients, these metabolites accelerate the aggregation of synuclein. Current results suggest that IDI1 and IDI2 may be related to the production of cholesterol metabolites, leading to the formation of pounds during the polymerization of selective synuclein.

References:

  1. "IDI1 - Isopentenyl-diphosphate Delta-isomerase - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508/ S288c) (Baker's yeast) - IDI1 gene & protein"(2016). UniProt. .
  2. Kaneda K, Kuzuyama T, Takagi M, Hayakawa Y, Seto H (2001). "An unusual isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase found in the mevalonate pathway gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98 (3): 932&ndash, 7.
  3. Cornforth JW, Cornforth RH, Popják G, Yengoyan L (1966). "Studies on the biosynthesis of cholesterol. XX. Steric course of decarboxylation of 5-pyrophosphomevalonate and of the carbon to carbon bond formation in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 241 (17): 3970-3987.
  4. Reardon JE, Abeles RH (1986). "Mechanism of action of isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase: evidence for a carbonium ion intermediate". Biochemistry. 25 (19): 5609-5616.
  5. Hall NR, Fish DE, Hunt N, Goldin RD, Guillou PJ, Monson JR (1992). "Is the relationship between angiogenesis and metastasis in breast cancer real?". Surgical Oncology. 1 (3): 223-229.
  6. Bach TJ (1995). "Some new aspects of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants--a review". Lipids. 30 (3): 191-202.
  7. Mayer MP, Hahn FM, Stillman DJ, Poulter CD (1992). "Disruption and mapping of IDI1, the gene for isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Yeast. 8 (9): 743-748.
  8. Kato T, Emi M, Sato H, Arawaka S, Wada M, Kawanami T, Katagiri T, Tsuburaya K, Toyoshima I, Tanaka F, Sobue G, Matsubara K (2010). "Segmental copy-number gain within the region of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase genes in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 402 (2): 438-442.