VEGF-D is a growth factor active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration and also has effects on the permeability of blood vessels. VEGF-D may function in the formation of the venous and lymphatic vascular systems during embryogenesis, and also in the maintenance of differentiated lymphatic endothelium in adults. The protein binds and activates VEGFR-2 (KDR/FLK1) and VEGFR-3 (FLT4) receptors. VEGF-D is a homodimer; it is also non-covalent and antiparallel. VEGF-D is highly expressed in lung, heart, small intestine and fetal lung, and at lower levels in skeletal muscle, colon, and pancreas. VEGF-D undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation which generates a variety of processed secreted forms with increased activity toward VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2. It first forms an antiparallel homodimer linked by disulfide bonds before secretion. The fully processed VEGF-D is composed mostly of two VEGF homology domains (VHDs) bound by non-covalent interactions.
VEGF-D; VEGFD; vascular endothelial growth factor D; FIGF; c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D); VEGF D; VEGFD, VEGF-D; c-fos induced growth factor; vascular enthelial growth factor D