E-selectin (Endothelial Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule-1, ELAM-1) belongs to the selectin family of adhesion molecules. Together with LECAM-1 (L-selectin) and GMP-140 (P-selectin), E-selectin mediates the initial interactions of leukocytes and platelets with endothelial cells.
Molecular structure: The extracellular part of all selectins consists of an aminoterminal c-type lectin domain, which specifically binds to carbohydrate ligands. This is followed by an EGF-like domain, and, in the case of E-selectin, by 6 short consensus repeats. The transmembrane portion of the molecule is followed by a short cytoplasmic tail.
Selectins provide the first, loose contacts of polymorphonuclear cells with the endothelium in areas of inflammation. The binding partner for E-selectin contains sialyl LewisX oligosaccharide or lactosaminoglycans that contain either sialic acid or fucose. E-selectin is expressed on cytokine-activated endothelial cells, and promotes the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. This initial binding event is a prerequisite for the activation of the immune cells via inflammatory mediators. In contrast to GMP-140, E-selectin is maximally expressed 2-4 hours after cell activation. During the following 24-48 hours E-selectin is shed from the cytoplasmic membrane into the circulation. The circulating form of this selectin attracts neutrophils and activates the 2- integrins in preparing the cells for migration.
Soluble E-selectin levels could provide insights into several pathologies, including allergic reactions, septic shock, vascular infection and inflammatory bowel disease.
RP1-117P20.2; CD62E; ELAM; ELAM1; ESEL; LECAM2; CD62 antigen-like family member E; E-selectin; ELAM-1; endothelial adhesion molecule 1; endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1; leukocyte endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2; leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2; SELE; selectin E; ELAM, ELAM1, endothelial adhesion molecule 1; si:ch211-260g14.8; uncharacterized protein LOC558139