5α-Androstane-3α, 17β-diol glucuronide is a C19 steroid and is either abbreviated as 3α Diol G, 5α Diol G or simply, α Diol G. It is produced mainly as a metabolite of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It is largely produced in target peripheral tissues such as the skin, especially around hair follicles. The stimulation by large amounts of 3α Diol G leads to excessive hair formation, notably where hair is not normally present in women.
In recent years the interest in the measurement of this steroid has increased among clinical investigators studying women suffering from idiopathic hirsutism.
Among the steroids known to be precursors for 3α Diol G are dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione and testosterone. Only 3α Diol G has been shown to increase with hirsutism and decrease with treatment. This correlation has also been demonstrated in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). 3α Diol G determinations have therefore proved to be a useful indicator in a variety of ways including monitoring the progress of treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and women with PCO.
Furthermore, diabetic patients (both men and women) under cyclosporine A therapy have shown increased 3α Diol G levels, a side effect resulting in the appearance of hair in previously hairless areas.
5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol; ABCD1; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 1; zgc:172102; ATP-binding cassette sub-family D member 1