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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide with about1.15 million new cases diagnosed annually. Some significant risk factors for breast cancer are null parity, older age, obesity, smoking and estrogen exposure. In around 10% of cases of breast cancer, the patients’ have a strong genetic predisposition. For example, patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations as well as those with mutations in p53 (Li-Fraumeni syndrome), STK11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome), and PTEN (Cowden syndrome), have a high risk of breast cancer.
A number of signaling pathways are implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. Some important examples of this are the HER-2 tyrosine kinase pathway, the hedgehog signaling pathway, PI3K pathway, p53 pathway, and PTEN pathway. The p53 pathway is very important in the repair of DNA damage and it has been reported that the p53 mutation is relatively common in breast cancer (about 20% of tumors harbor this mutation). Alteration of both PIK3CA and PTEN is commonly found in breast cancer and alteration of PTEN has been reported to be involved in breast cancer resistance to treatment. Several cell growth receptor pathways were altered in breast cancer, including NGF, HGF, FGF and IGF, suggesting that many growth factors are interacting with breast cancer cells, leading to uncontrolled proliferation and survival advantage of cancer cells. The study has also suggested that many cytokine and inflammatory pathways are also altered in breast cancer including TNF, NF-kB, TGF-β, iNOS, IL9 and IL15, suggesting the crucial role of inflammation in breast cancer carcinogenesis.
Breast cancer is a complex disease that results from the dysregulation of signaling networks caused by the genetic and epigenetic alterations in cells. The understanding of pathways involved in breast cancer pathogenesis contributes to the identification of new targeted therapeutic agents as well and can also be used for diagnosis and prognosis. Creative Biogene, as a leading biotechnology company, is able to offer various breast cancer pathway related products including stable cell lines, viral particles and clones for your drug discovery projects.