|CSC-DC000240||Panoply™ Human ADAM28 Knockdown Stable Cell Line||Inquiry|
|CSC-SC000240||Panoply™ Human ADAM28 Over-expressing Stable Cell Line||Inquiry|
|CDCB171921||Danio rerio ADAM28 ORF Clone (NM_001076718)||Inquiry|
|CDCB190824||Rabbit ADAM28 ORF clone (XM_008251618.1)||Inquiry|
|CDCR233835||Mouse Adam28 ORF Clone(NM_001048175.1)||Inquiry|
|CDCR248393||Mouse Adam28 ORF Clone(NM_010082.2)||Inquiry|
|CDCR276075||Mouse Adam28 ORF Clone(NM_183366.2)||Inquiry|
|CDCR382047||Rat Adam28 ORF Clone(NM_181693.1)||Inquiry|
|CDFL000926||Mouse Adam28 cDNA Clone(NM_010082.2)||Inquiry|
|CDFL000927||Mouse Adam28 cDNA Clone(NM_183366.2)||Inquiry|
|CDFR015000||Rat Adam28 cDNA Clone(NM_181693.1)||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1H-00160||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1H-00161||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1M-01182||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1M-01183||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1M-01184||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|MiUTR1R-00116||ADAM28 miRNA 3'UTR clone||Inquiry|
|SHG038627||shRNA set against Human ADAM28(NM_014265.4)||Inquiry|
|SHG038681||shRNA set against Human ADAM28(NM_021777.3)||Inquiry|
|SHG038863||shRNA set against Mouse Adam28(NM_001048175.1)||Inquiry|
|SHG038881||shRNA set against Mouse Adam28(NM_010082.2)||Inquiry|
|SHG038899||shRNA set against Rat Adam28(NM_181693.1)||Inquiry|
|SHG038977||shRNA set against Mouse Adam28(NM_183366.2)||Inquiry|
|SHH231562||shRNA set against Human ADAM28 (NM_014265.4)||Inquiry|
|SHH231566||shRNA set against Mouse ADAM28 (NM_183366.2)||Inquiry|
|SHH231570||shRNA set against Rat ADAM28 (NM_181693.1)||Inquiry|
|SHW010446||shRNA set against Danio rerio ADAM28 (NM_001076718)||Inquiry|
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28 (ADAM28) is a member of the ADAM family. In the protein sequence, it is closer to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) than other members, so it can cut a similar substrate for snake venom metalloproteinases. ADAM28 has two isomorphs: membrane anchoring (ADAM28m) and secretory (ADAM28s). In human tissues, ADAM28m is expressed on the surface of the spleen, lymph nodes and T, B lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes; ADAM28s is mainly expressed in the spleen. Recent studies have shown that human ADAM28 is expressed in odontogenic cells. ADAM28 has the functions of cell adhesion and proteolytic enzymes and plays an important role in cell activities such as degradation of extracellular matrix, cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, cell fusion and signal transduction. ADAM28 is involved in the pathological processes of multiple solid tumor formations, invasion, and metastasis in vivo, so its targeted therapy in tumors may have important clinical significance.
The molecular mechanism of ADAM28 gene expression in cancer cells remains elusive. Abe et al. found that ADAM28 is expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells transformed with oncogenes, including v-src, LMP1, ErbB2, Ha-Ras and c-Fos. The v-src transformants were found to selectively induce ADAM28. Implantation of v-src transformants showed progressive tumors that were significantly inhibited by local injection of anti-ADAM28 antibodies. By treatment with Src kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or mammalian target rapamycin, radicicol, or a mixture of MEK and PI3K inhibitors, the expression of ADAM28 in the v-sc transformants was partially inhibited and eliminated by the v-Src kinase inhibitor. Human cancer cell lines of the lung, breast, ovary, kidney, and colon show ADAM28 expression, which is associated with phosphorylation of c-Src and is inhibited by inhibitors in a similar manner to v-src transformants.
Figure 1. Schematic presentation of the Src effector pathways that may be involved in Src-induced expression of ADAM28. (Abe, H., et al. 2013)
ADAM28 and Leukemia
Human membrane-anchored ADAM28m is expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Studies by Bret et al have shown that ADAM28 is overexpressed in normal memory B cells. Another report suggests that ADAM28 is highly expressed in B lymphocyte profiles in humans and mice, especially chronic B lymphoblastic leukemia.
CD200 is a type I membrane glycoprotein that is a highly conserved member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It can be expressed in a variety of human cells including B cells and activated T cells. CD200 can exert immunomodulatory effects by binding to receptors on the surface of myeloid cells to affect cell function. CD200 is elevated in a variety of hematological malignancies and is associated with progression and prognosis of lymphoma and leukemia. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the expression level of soluble CD200 (sCD200) is positively correlated with the expression level of ADAM28 mRNA in CD5 + cells. When ADAM28 expression was inhibited by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the amount of sCD200 released from tumor cells was significantly reduced. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that ADAM28 mediates CD200 shedding on the cell surface. Further, it was found that secreted ADAM28s expressed more in the spleen and lymph nodes, but their mRNA expression levels were not associated with sCD200. Therefore, it is hypothesized that secreted ADAM28s and membrane-anchored ADAM28m play different roles in tumor progression. ADAM28s are not involved in the core process of sCD200 shedding, and ADAM28m is the primary factor in this biological process.
ADAM28 and Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
In vitro studies have found that human lung cancer cells (PC-9 and Calu-3) are the higher expression of ADAM28 than breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231 and MCF-7), renal cell carcinoma cells (CAKI-2 and 769P), and liver cancer cells (HepG2). Zucker et al. found that the expression level of ADAM28 is associated with rapid growth and metastatic tumors such as human lung cancer. Membrane-anchored ADAM28m and secreted ADAM28s are associated with lung tumor metastasis. Clinical studies such as Lv et al. have shown that the expression of ADAM28 non-small cell lung cancer is significantly increased in advanced patients, and the expression level is related to clinical tumor size, tumor cell proliferation status and lymph node metastasis. Serum ADAM28 levels can be used as biomarkers for the chemotherapy effect of lung cancer. The baseline expression level of ADAM28 and the upper bound of ADAM28 are independent survival predictors for patients with advanced lung cancer.
ADAM28 and Other Cancers
Clinical studies have found that ADAM28 levels are positively correlated with tumor size in patients with lung adenocarcinomas with a tumor diameter of no more than 20 mm. The results of immunostaining showed that the survival rate of ADAM28 immunoreactive lung adenocarcinoma patients was lower than that of the control group. Studies have shown that serum and tumor cell surface ADAM28 is highly expressed and can be a biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer. Studies have shown that asbestos-related lung cancer and the control group have found that ADAM28 is significantly increased in patients with lung cancer induced by asbestos. ADAM28 is also considered to be one of the biomarkers of lung tumors caused by asbestos.
In the distribution of anatomical locations of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, ADAM28 is more likely to be highly expressed in pharyngeal tumor cells; in the histopathological staging of tumors, ADAM28 is the most highly expressed in stage II tumors (medium differentiated tumors). ADAM28 detected in tissues of patients with overweight or obese colorectal cancer or in prostate cancer cell lines may be predictive of tumor metastasis. In addition, studies have found that ADAM28 can be used as an effective diagnostic marker for distinguishing between low-grade malignant chondrosarcoma and endogenous chondromatosis. The study also found that the expression of ADAM28 in chondroblastoma was higher than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.
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