Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic, 19 amino acid peptide produced in the lateral hypothalamus and other regions of the mammalian brain. When administered intracerebrally or overexpressed transgenically in rodents, MCH stimulates food intake and weight gain. A receptor for MCH, previously identified as an orphan receptor SLC-1 and renamed MCHR1, has been identified in humans and rodents. Consistent with a role in hypothalmic control of feeding behavior, MCHR1 is expressed in in the ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Genetic ablation and pharmacological antagonism of MCHR1 in rodents results in resistance to obesity caused by a high fat diet or leptin deficiency. Thus, MCHR1 is an attractive target for obesity.