Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor for the endogenous insulinotropic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP1R is expressed in pancreatic cells and the nervous system, and mediate the effects of GLP-1 in regulating glucose homeostasis through multiple mechanisms including direct actions on the endocrine pancreas and indirect activation of central nervous system controlling gastric emptying, satiety, and body weight. In the brain, receptor activation elicits neurotrophic actions through protection against metabolic and oxidative insults. GLP1R is also implicated in plasticity, memory, and learning. Thus, GLP1R is a potential therapeutic target for both cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective agents and in the treatment of stroke and Parkinsonism.