Galanin is a 29-30 amino acid peptide originally purified from intestine but later found to be abundant in the CNS. A family of 3 GPCRs, GAL1, GAL2 and GAL3, bind to galanin and mediate its biological effects. GAL1 couples to Gi/o to decrease intracellular cAMP levels. Galanin and its receptors have been implicated in pain, cognition, seizure activity, depression and drug addiction. In particular, GAL1 mediates the anticonvulsant activity of galanin; mice lacking GAL1 are affected by spontaneous seizures, and have increased susceptibility to seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine treatment and electrical perforant path stimulation.